Trening neurofeedback w celu poprawy wydajności szczytowej, optymalnej i funkcji poznawczych

            Neurofeedback jest wykorzystywany w treningu wydajności szczytowej[1], a także poprawie zdolności poznawczych i pamięci. Na przykład w randomizowanym, zaślepionym badaniu z grupą kontrolną neurofeedback znacząco poprawił wydajność u artystów muzycznych[2], a podobnie zaprojektowane badanie udokumentowało znaczną poprawę wydajności w tańcu towarzyskim[3]. Takie wyniki odnotowano również w przypadku golfa[4] i łucznictwa[5][6], uzyskując poprawę szybkości czasu reakcji i zdolności wzrokowo-przestrzennych (co ma znaczenie dla wyników sportowych)[7][8], udoskonalenie umiejętności wokalnych[9][10], gry aktorskiej[11] oraz poprawę wyników w zadaniach monitorowania radaru[12]. W jednym fascynującym badaniu porównano trening w celu zwiększenia częstotliwości fal mózgowych SMR lub alfa i theta u mikrochirurgów okulistycznych w porównaniu z grupą na liście oczekujących (bez leczenia)[13]. Tylko po ośmiu sesjach terapii SMR lekarze wykazali znaczną poprawę umiejętności chirurgicznych, zmniejszenie lęku i o 26% skrócenie czasu wykonywania czynności chirurgicznych. Potencjał zastosowań neurofeedbacku dla poprawy wydajności szczytowej i optymalnej jest bardzo owocnym obszarem do dalszych badań. Neurofeedback poprawiający funkcjonowanie poznawcze i przeciwdziałający efektom starzenia nazywany jest „rozjaśnianiem mózgu”[14]. Ros, Munneke, Ruge, Gruzelier i Rothwell (2010) przedstawili dowody na to, że trening neurofeedbacku u zdrowych osób zwiększa neuroplastyczność[15].

Poniżej znajdują się szczegółowe artykuły opisujące zasady działania i skuteczność odpowiednich protokołów neurofeedbacku, sprzyjających osiąganiu wydajności szczytowej i optymalnej oraz poprawie funkcji poznawczych. Na czerwono zaznaczono przeglądy systematyczne badań i metaanalizy, a na zielono pojedyncze badania. W skrócie można potwierdzić, że według dostępnego piśmiennictwa naukowego neurofeedback wpływa na następujące domeny poznawcze: 

 

Pamięć robocza[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Pamięć rozpoznawania[28][29][30]

Pamięć deklaratywna[31][32]

Pamięć długotrwała[33][34][35]

Pamięć wzrokowo-przestrzenna[36]

Pamięć epizodyczna[37][38][39]

Pamięć[40][41][42]

Pamięć werbalna i niektóre aspekty pamięci wizualnej[43]

Uwaga[44][45][46][47][48][49][50]

Uwaga ciągła[51][52][53][54]

Uwaga przestrzenna[55]

Umiejętności wzrokowo-ruchowe[56]

Rotacja wzrokowo-przestrzenna[57][58]

Rotacja przestrzenna[59]

Uczenie się[60]

Uczenie proceduralne[61][62]

Niejawne uczenie się[63]

Niejawne motoryczne uczenie się[64]

Inteligencja płynna i wiązanie funkcji[65][66]

Przyspieszenie konsolidacji pamięci podczas snu[67]

Poprawa nastroju[68][69][70][71][72][73]

Poprawa zdolności poznawczych u starszych osób[74][75][76][77][78][79]

Poprawa zdolności poznawczych[80][81][82][83]

Umiejętności psychomotoryczne[84][85]

Kreatywność[86][87][88][89]

Kreatywność i myślenie rozbieżne[90]

Kreatywnośc mierzoną  płynnością, oryginalnością i elastycznością[91]

Płynność twórcza[92]

Kreatywność u studentów[93]

Kreatywność werbalna[94]

Kreatywność i wydajność u tancerzy[95][96][97][98][99]

Wydajność muzyczna[100][101][102][103][104]

Wydajność artystyczna[105][106][107]

Odczuwanie lęku u gimnastyków[108]

Wydajność u aktorów[109]

Poprawa funkcji wykonawczych[110][111][112][113]

Łączność funkcjonalna[114][115]

Poprawa równowagi u starszych osób[116]

Poprawa myślenia algorytmicznego[117]

Poprawa uczenia się języków obcych[118]

Poprawa przetwarzania neuropoznawczego[119]

Poprawa czasu reakcji (przyspieszenie inicjacji ruchu)[120]

Wydajność sensoryczno-motoryczna[121]

Przetwarzanie sensoryczne[122]

Wydajność psychoruchowa[123]

Wydajność u chirurgów laparoskopowych[124]

Przetwarzanie percepcyjne[125].

 

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